Category Archives: Summa Theologiae

Aquinas vs. Newman on doctrinal development

In discussing whether the articles of faith “creverint secundum temporum successionem,” Thomas considers the following objection: Sicut per apostolos ad nos fides Christi pervenit, ita etiam in veteri testamento per priores patres ad posteriores devenit cognitio fidei, secundum illud Deut. … Continue reading

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Eschatology and Anthropology

There’s a lively discussion at the moment about the possibility — or indeed, the inevitability — of universal salvation. TJ White’s treatment of Christ’s descent into hell in his recent Incarnate Lord includes some helpful discussion of universalism that clearly locates what I … Continue reading

Posted in David B. Hart, Doctrine of Creation, Eschatology, Eternity, Gregory of Nyssa, Human nature, Summa Theologiae, Thomas Aquinas | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Charity the Form of the Virtues

IIa IIae, 23, 8 is one of the most important arguments in all of Thomas’s moral theology: he has suggested earlier that the proper end of every human act is charity; he now suggests that the end re-structures the very … Continue reading

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Is charity something created in the soul?

Thomas argues that it has to be (ST IIa IIae, 22, 2). By “created,” he means a habit or power which the soul can exercise freely. Here he opposes Peter Lombard (“Magister”), who had argued that the love by which … Continue reading

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Fear and Love

Thomas (IIa IIae, 19, 3) argues that “worldly fear” (e.g., the fear of worldly powers or events) is always evil: “Timor autem ex amore nascitur, illud enim homo timet amittere quod amat; ut patet per Augustinum, in libro octogintatrium quaest. … Continue reading

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Faith precedes hope

Why? Because hope requires a known object, and hope as a theological virtue (that is, the only hope which in Thomas’s opinion is worth the name) finds its object in the eternal beatitude of life with God. But we only … Continue reading

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The object of hope

If the proper object of the Christian virtue of hope is, as Thomas argues, “eternal blessedness,” (IIa IIae, 17, 2) it would seem improper to hope for the manifold other things for which we in fact do hope: “bona praesentis … Continue reading

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